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Ethics

Assignment 1 explored ethnocentrism.

Cultural Relativism
I have my ethical views and you have yours; neither my views nor yours are better or more correct. I may believe that a particular war was unjust, and you may believe that it was just. Someone else may believe that all war is wrong…we each have our individual histories that explain how we have come to hold our particular views or attitudes. But they are just that-our own individual views and attitudes. We cannot say that they are correct or incorrect because to do so would assume some objective standard of right and wrong against which we could judge their correctness. Such a standard does not exist.
Cultural Relativism
Ethics: Theory and Contemporary Issues 9th Edition (p. 46)
Assignment 1 explored ethnocentrism. Assignment 2 will explore cultural relativism. This one will require deep pondering. You begin by asking yourself if there are certain absolute rights and wrongs. Then consider if you have ever violated an absolute wrong? How do you know that something is absolutely wrong? By what standard do you judge others’ actions?
Remember applied ethics? Let’s explore some case studies so you can practice applying what you have learned.
First, we need to establish some assumptions:
You have established what is right and wrong for yourself
You have based your belief about what is right and wrong in such things as religion, education, humanism
One of those beliefs is that “killing is wrong.” You could never kill. This belief is not relative to a culture or situation; it is an absolute metaethical wrong.
Case Study #1
You study the Inuit culture and find that the elderly would be stabbed or left to freeze on ice flows. Death occurs swiftly. You think how barbaric this was and judge the culture as such. Now consider the way many elderly die in the U.S. today: confused, moaning, incontinent in diapers, a slow, agonizing death, perhaps being tube fed and given medications to prolong life. How would the Inuit of the day view our culture from this lens?
Case Study #2
You are studying ethics in war. You are not concerned about killing in war. War has different rules. Killing is OK in war. You have to kill to be in war. Private Doss participated in war yet held to his ethical beliefs. He did not kill, he saved, at great personal risk. Does this now mean that killing during war is wrong? Does it mean that killing during war is right? Does it support that everything is relative to our cultural beliefs? Watch the trailer for Hacksaw Ridge (02:25).
Case Study #3
Lawrence Franks (84) promised his wife, suffering from dementia, that he would never put her in a nursing home. Lawrence lovingly cared for his wife for years until her condition became too serious, and he was unable to properly care for her. He felt that she was suffering. He then killed his 86-year-old wife to fulfill his promise. He was charged with murder. Is Mr. Franks guilty of murder? Read his story.
Case Study #4
Jungdan Chow and his family have a tradition passed down for generations. The entire family would go to the markets to pick out dinner. This was a very special dinner as delicacies they could not typically afford were carefully chosen and prepared. Even the young children could sense the excitement in the air as they strolled through the market. Bat and fresh, boiled dog, were chosen that day and they hurried home to begin the feast, feeling connected to their ancestors by hundreds of years of tradition.
…wet markets are the predominant food retail outlets for fresh produce and meat in Chinese cities. They have very few supermarkets…. hedgehogs and peacocks and wild rabbits and snakes, deer; crocodiles as well. Many of these wild animals, they’re not necessarily caught in the wild – right? – so they can be farmed animals. They’re just exotic food that’s not very commonly found. Eating wild animals is considered a symbol of wealth because they are rarer and more expensive. And wild animals are also considered more natural and, thus, nutritious, compared to farmed meat. It’s a belief in traditional Chinese medicine that it can boost the immune system. Excerpted from: https://www.npr.org/2020/01/22/798644707/why-wet-markets-persisted-in-china-despite-disease-and-hygiene-concerns
Express your thoughts on cultural relativism.
Include the following aspects in the assignment:
How would you judge right and wrong from different cultural perspectives and different situations?
When making an ethical decision that will impact others, how would you assure that you are not viewing right and wrong from the perspective that only your culture knows?
To complete this, write one paragraph for each Case Study
There is no right or wrong answer here; you will be graded on the depth of your reflection

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Ethics

Discuss the situation.

1. Read the article: “The Race Problem with Artificial Intelligence Links to an external site.
2. Watch this: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLqsRLvV-c
3. Answer these questions:
A. After reading the article, how would you respond to someone who says “Robots can’t be racist, they’re not human” ?
B. Have you ever encountered Racist AI out on the internet? Discuss the situation. IF you have not encountered Racist AI, why do you think that is? It’s for a reason, I promise you that.

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Ethics

Do not repeat what is shown on the slide, which makes for a boring training meeting.

Ethic’s Training Program – Create a PowerPoint, which is your annual review for existing employees and new employee training on your company’s ethics policy. Your Power Point presentation MUST have speaker’s notes to tell me what you will be saying while the slide is shown. Do not repeat what is shown on the slide, which makes for a boring training meeting.
I have attached the business information and policies that will be needed for this assignment.

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Ethics

Are they courageous or cowardly?

How should we describe the terroristic hijackers who killed thousands of people on September 11th 2001? Are they courageous or cowardly? Attacking innocent, unarmed, civilian non-combatants is presumably cowardly, but facing death without flinching in the name of a cause one believe in seems courageous. What is the correct explanation of this horrific act, in terms of virtue?

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Ethics

Second part to the essay you did for me yesterday.

Second part to the essay you did for me yesterday. Use 2 theories (Kanye deontological theory or John Stuart mills theory to analyze case story on time theft.

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Ethics

What things can/should you do.

You’re preparing for trial and halfway through research, you can see the client lied. What things can/should you do. He’s been giving phony papers/statements, etc. What steps should you take?

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Ethics

Which of the following criticisms against the cultural differences argument does james rachels hold?

Quiz 7
Question 1
Which of the following does Mackie DISAGREE with?
A. First order moral values can be objectively determined.
B. Second order moral values can be objectively determined.
C. Second order moral considerations concern the meta-ethical grounds upon which first order moral values are based.
D. At the second order, there are no objective moral facts.
Question 2
From Mackie’s perspective, the only credible alternative to subjectivism is Kant’s ‘categorical imperative.’ True or false
Question 3
Subjectivism is the notion that there are no moral facts.
True or False
Question 4
Which of the following does Mackie AGREE with regarding the ‘argument from queerness’?
A .The objectivity of moral values ultimately depends upon a Platonic conception of ideal forms.
B. If moral values were objective they would be both metaphysically and epistemologically queer (or odd) because they would require a very queer faculty for their apprehension.
C.If moral values are subjective, then it follows that they are metaphysically real and can be known because they are accessible by the moral agent’s subjectivity.
D. A companion of guilt for the queerness of moral values includes Bertrand Russel.
Question 5 options:
The lack of objectivity in values is reason to abandon subjective moral concern. True
False
Quiz 8
Question 1
The term “justice as fairness” conveys the idea that the principles of justice are agreed to in an initial position that is
A.Constitutional.
B. Artificial
C. Rational
D Fair
Question 2
Rawls maintains that all social values (opportunity, liberty, income, wealth, etc.) are to be distributed equally unless an unequal distribution is
A.To everyone’s advantage
B.Beneficial to the majority
C. Consistent with utility
D. Deserved
Question 3
Rawls says that each person is to have an equal right to the most extensive basic liberty compatible with
A.Social utility
B. A similar liberty for others
C.Traditional morality
D.Economic stability
Question 4
Rawls thinks that the original position is an actual historical state of affairs.
True or False
Question 5
Rawls thinks that institutions in society can be justified on the grounds that the hardships of some people would be offset by the greater good of society as a whole
True or False
Quiz 9
Question 1
Which of the following ethical positions best suits the critique of morality offered by Frederich Nietzsche?
A.One ought always to promote the greatest amount of happiness for the greatest amount of people.
B. The basis of morality is the the egoistic will-to-power.
C. The goal of life is to living a flourishing life in accordance with virtue.
D.The basis of morality is divine command.
Question 2
According to Nietzsche, Christian morality is a slave morality.
True or False
Question 3
Nietzsche believes that the fundamental creative force that motivates all creation is love.
True or False
Question 4
Nietzsche asserts that all persons are of equal worth. True or False
Quiz 10
Question 1
If social standards alone form the basis for moral codes of conduct, then one of the consequences of this idea would be that moral progress should be called into doubt. True or False
Question 2
If cultural relativism is true, then how can we account for the similarity of many moral customs among cultures. For instance, all cultures seem to have prohibitions against unjustified killing, or lying, why? What reason does James Rachels offer
A.Universal prohibitions are a consequence of a long shared history that all cultures share with each other.
B. All cultures which survive long enough will eventually adopt the moral prohibitions of others over time.
C.Some rules are necessary for society to exist.
D.God created the moral values, so all cultures share them.
Question 3
Cultural Relativism in moral philosophy is the notion that morality is relative to its cultural context.
True or False
Question 4
Which of the following criticisms against the cultural differences argument does James Rachels hold?
A. The Cultural Differences Argument fails when it infers the fact of disagreement from the moral norm of toleration.
B. People do not in fact have disagreements about moral life. Although cultures are different from one another, they fundamentally all hold the same moral beliefs.
C.All moral disagreements between cultures are ultimately disagreements about the history of a people, not the relative nature of moral custom.
D.The Cultural Differences Argument tries to infer a substantive conclusion about a subject from the mere fact that people disagree about it.
Question 5
The Cultural Differences argument concludes with…
A.It is mere arrogance for us to judge the moral conduct of other cultures.
B.The moral code of our own society has no special status.
C.There is no universal truth in ethics.
D. Different Societies have different moral codes.

Categories
Ethics

What is the thought experiment and what conclusion(s) does hare draw?

Its 7 Questions to answer will pay tip if done by 730am 11/4/2022
1.At the end of Mackie’s essay “The Subjectivity of Values” we find an argument regarding two of the basic strategies that are taken by philosophers to avoid the consequence of subjectivism. What are those two strategies and why do they fail, according to Mackie?
2.Please summarize the central moral position(s) of Frederich Nietzsche. What does Nietzsche think of morality and what arguments does he offer in support of his view(s)?
3.Please explain the idea of the ‘veil of ignorance’ in the work of John Rawls. What is the veil of ignorance exactly and how does he relate this idea to the 2 principles of justice?
4.What is the cultural differences argument? What criticism of the argument does James Rachel offer?
5.Please summarize the argument in favor of abortion by Judith Jarvis Thomson. Are abortions always morally permissible? Yes or no? Why or why not?
6.What is moral subjectvism according to JL Mackie? In addition, what is the distinction between first and second order ethical views, and why is this significant for Mackie’s position of subjectivism?
7.R. M. Hare offers a thought experiment regarding slavery on an imaginary island in his essay “What is Wrong with Slavery?”. What is the thought experiment and what conclusion(s) does Hare draw?

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Ethics

The total paper will be at least six pages, normal margins, double-spaced, 12-point font.

* Papers must be submitted electronically in one of the formats required by the syllabus. The total paper will be at least six pages, normal margins, double-spaced, 12-point font.

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Ethics

Denial?

Course Paper: The Ethical Follower
This assignment is worth 200 points of your final course grade. This assignment asks you to research a whistleblower who exposed unethical behavior in an organization and the outcome of that exposure or investigation. The research is to be done over the entire semester. The research paper should be a minimum of 5 and a maximum of 7 pages, not including, references and cover page. The paper must be written using APA 6th edition style format, double spaced and utilizing the Times New Roman font type and 12-point font size. The submitted paper will be checked for plagiarism and the appropriate sanctions applied (see pages 15-16 on the syllabus). Submitted papers must not be a compilation of quotes and those submitted in this format will be given a zero, even if the quotes are cited in the paper (see pages 15-16 of the syllabus).
The following are important guiding questions that must be answered in your paper.
1. Definitions of whistleblowing–legal and otherwise. For example, when actors report being sexually harassed by a film producer, is that a variety of whistleblowing? What is whistleblowing?
2.Online research of whistleblowing in the U.S. government–what offices exist, what cases have been tried, and what protections are offered for whistleblowers? For example, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission has an Office of the Whistleblower. The U.S. Department of Labor offers a Whistleblower Protection Program. The Department of Energy lists the whistleblowing cases it has been involved in.
3.Online and library research of whistleblowing in the professions you as a student want to go into, such as the film industry, finance. Accounting, computer and informational technology, business management, marketing, the military, human resources, and so on.
4.Selection of a whistleblower to study (e.g., Sherron Watkins, Enron; Edward Snowden, NSA; Jeffrey Wigand, the tobacco industry, etc.). Consider looking for local whistleblowers who may have been profiled in regional newspapers. Locating individuals from our local communities who are whistleblowers, will hopefully make this project more “real.” There needs to be enough information publicly available to develop a substantive profile of the person’s organizational role and motivations for exposing unethical behavior. Hence, before selecting the whistleblower to study, make sure you are able to find adequate information that would meet your paper requirements.
5.Analysis of the follower’s ethical decision-making process. What considerations were weighed? What pressures (internal and external) did the whistleblower experience before and after deciding to expose a company’s unethical behavior?
6.What was the effect of the whistleblowing on the accused individual(s) and company? Acceptance of responsibility? Denial?
7.Summary of the outcome. Was there a trial? A verdict? An appeal? A settlement out of court? Was the follower changed in some way because of this experience?
8.What takeaway lessons about followership are there from this event?
Use Chapter 13 (Followership) in the Northouse textbook to guide your response to this research paper.