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Rita A In analytical health research there are generally two types of var

Rita A

In analytical health research there are generally two types of variables. Independent variables are what we expect will influence dependent variables. A dependent variable is what happens as a result of the independent variable. It is defined as the thing which is being measured in an experiment, whilst the independent variable is the thing that is being manipulated or changed. For example, if we want to explore whether high concentrations of vehicle exhaust impact incidence of asthma in children, vehicle exhaust is the independent variable while asthma is the dependent variable (National Institutes of Health, 2017). Extraneous variables are undesirable variables that influence the relationship between the variables that the experimenter is observing. In the process of research, there is a need to control the extraneous variables as they add an alternative explanation of the results. For example: An experimenter was studying the effects of gender on response times, with the theory that females would be slower than males. The experimenter studied 20 participants in a public computer room throughout the day. The dependent variable is the response times, the independent variable is the gender of participants, and extraneous variables could be time of day or how noisy the computer room is.

Two ways that researchers attempt to control extraneous variable are by randomization and matching. With randomization approach, treatments are randomly assigned to the experimental groups. It is assumed that the extraneous factors are present equally in all the groups. This technique is only workable when the sample size is very large. Another important technique is to match the different groups of confounding variables. Different confounding variables like gender, age, income etc. could be distributed equally amongst the group. It sometimes does become difficult to extend matching within all the groups and another drawback of the same is that, sometime the matched characteristics may be irrelevant to the dependent variable (Methods to control extraneous variables, 2014).

References:

National Institutes of Health. (2017). Dependent and independent variables. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Retrieved December 6, 2022, from https://www.nlm.nih.gov/nichsr/stats_tutorial/section2/mod4_variables.html

Methods to control extraneous variables. Dissertation Canada. (2014, July 7). Retrieved December 6, 2022, from http://www.dissertationcanada.com/blog/methods-to-control-extraneous-variables/
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Reflect on your opinion regarding governmental involvement in public health poli

Reflect on your opinion regarding governmental involvement in public health policy.
Review the HPV case study presented in the Learning Resources as an example of a controversial public health mandate.
Select a current public health topic where a mandate is a controversial intervention.
Note: The public health topic you select should DIFFER from the one chosen for your Scholar Practitioner Project (SPP) in Module 1. Also, you may not select a topic that is included in the Learning Resources.
Conduct research to locate at least three scholarly, peer-reviewed resources (no more than 5 years old) from the Walden Library to support your Case Study Analysis.
Download the assessment template provided in the Learning Resources to complete your Case Study Analysis.
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This is a reflection essay with an introduction, coherent thesis, supported body

This is a reflection essay with an introduction, coherent thesis, supported body paragraphs and conclusion. The thesis -The reflection on the recent persuasive essay and the description of the most effective writing strategies, integration of the sources, exploration of the issue and the incorporation of the feedback.
I can provide the feedback and the persuasive essay which this reflection essay will be based on.
Please, let me know if you have any questions about the project, thank you.
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I have 3 research references that I used for the project so if I can send that o

I have 3 research references that I used for the project so if I can send that one and also the PowerPoint of the book used? I was unable to download all the materials for the assignment
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James O Variables in Research Understanding the causes of phenomena

James O

Variables in Research

Understanding the causes of phenomena is one of the major aims of research. The presumed cause in a cause-effect relationship is called the independent variable, and the presumed effect is called the dependent variable. It is the dependent variable that the researcher is usually most interested in understanding and possibly interested in predicting. An extraneous variable is an additional variable that the researcher is not interested in but might somehow influence the variables of interest. In many situations, demographic variables such as gender, race, and marital status are used as control variables. Researchers are concerned about extraneous variables because they can alter or obscure the relationship between the independent variable and dependent variable or indicate there is a causal relationship between them when none exists. Researchers try to control for extraneous variables in their experiments by controlling the conditions of the experimental environment to keep variables as constant as possible (Urban & van Eeden-Moorefield, 2018, pp. 39 &40).

Extraneous variables impair a valid causal conclusion and are thus a threat to internal validity. The technique of randomization is one of the most important control techniques of experimental design. Randomization not only guarantees that the assumptions for the evaluation of the data with statistical procedures are fulfilled, but it also has the effect that causal conclusions become possible. The term randomization just means that an additional random element is introduced into the experimental setting (Bowman, 2017, para. 6). Another way of controlling extraneous variable is consistency of the environment. With this, individual participates in an experiment in the exact same environment with the exposure or conditions such as lighting conditions, same noise levels, same temperature, and same number of potential distractions. This helps in minimizing the effect of situational variables and demand characteristics (Meltzoff & Cooper, 2018, p. 89).

References

Bowman N. (2017). Extraneous Variables, Control of. Sage Publications.

Meltzoff, J., & Cooper, H. (2018). Confounding variables and their control. In Critical thinking

about research: Psychology and related fields., 2nd ed. (pp. 79–96). American

Psychological Association. https://doi-org.lopes.idm.oclc.org/10.1037/0000052-006

Urban, J. B., & van Eeden-Moorefield, B. M. (2018). Understanding terms for quantitative studies:

Concepts, constructs, and variables. In Designing and proposing your research project.

(pp.35–42). American Psychological Association. https://doi- org.lopes.idm.oclc.

org/10.1037/0000049-005
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Answer this question from the attached article. What is Gary Kaplan trying to ac

Answer this question from the attached article. What is Gary Kaplan trying to achieve at Virginia Mason?
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Select and research one (1) of the following forms of psychotherapy: Cognitiv

Select and research one (1) of the following forms of psychotherapy:

Cognitive or Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
Dialectical Behavior Therapy
Behavior Therapy
Psychodynamic therapy
Family therapy (structural or multi-dimensional)
Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT)
Internal Family Systems Therapy (IFS)
Schema-Focused Therapy
Answer the Following Questions:

What is the research evidence that this method is effective?
With what types of mental disorders and with what age groups has this approach shown some success?
How does this method compare to just providing psychiatric medications?
Are there benefits for using combinations of treatment, such as medications,plus psychotherapy, plus mindful meditation, etc?
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This assignment should be detailed covering ALL areas as indicated. Thank you!

This assignment should be detailed covering ALL areas as indicated. Thank you!
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Ijeoma O Levels of evidence are systems used to rank evidence by following c

Ijeoma O

Levels of evidence are systems used to rank evidence by following certain criteria when doing research. They are assigned to research evidence based on the methodological quality of their design, reliability, validity, and applicability to patient care. The levels are summarized in the following paragraphs and an example of the type of practice change that could result from each.

Level I comprise evidence from the systematic review where critical assessment and evaluation of the research studies addressing a particular clinical issue is done and a description of the findings is done. Meta-analysis of all randomized controlled trials is also used to provide an overview of the evidence. It has the highest internal validity and is characterized by quantitative analysis of a high degree and scientific methodology that are strict (Greenhalgh et al., 2019). The practice change that can be experienced at this level is test treatments.

Level II comprises evidence from at least one well-designed randomized control trial with or without meta-analysis. The practice change is exposing a cohort to risks and observe outcomes of interest

Level III is comprised of evidence from a qualitative study or systemic review and a well-designed randomized control trial without randomization or better known as quasi-experimental (Rolfe, 2015). It is none experimental study and may lack meta-analysis. The subject variables may have outcomes of interest but you look for risk factors

Level IV are opinions from authorities that are respected or nationally recognized committee of experts based on scientific evidence. These may include consensus panels and clinical practice guidelines (Rolfe, 2015). The last level is based on non-research and experimental evidence which may include case reports, literature review, quality improvement program or financial evaluation, and opinions of experts recognized nationally on experiential evidence. The change plan may be reviews of narratives, expert opinions, and editorials for the last two levels

Studies and research with the highest validity level that is characterized by a high degree of quantitative analysis, reviews, and strict scientific methodologies are grouped as level I while observational research with expert opinions are at level V

References

Greenhalgh, T. M., Bidewell, J., Warland, J., Lambros, A., & Crisp, E. (2019). Understanding research methods for evidence-based practice in health. John Wiley & Sons.

Rolfe, G. (2015). Evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence. Exploring Evidence-based Practice, 99-112. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781315764559-8
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Oralia Z The hierarchy of evidence is given to any study based on the qualit

Oralia Z

The hierarchy of evidence is given to any study based on the quality of the methodology used, validation of the design, and how appropriate the patient care is in making the best decisions while giving the suitable recommendation. According to Glasofer & Townsend (2021), the hierarchy of evidence in healthcare involves seven levels, which include:

Level I

Include all evidence from systematic reviews of randomized control trials (RCTs). Moreover, it entails evidence-based clinical practice guidelines based on systematic reviews of RCTs.

Level II

Evidence obtained from at least one well-designed Randomized Controlled Trial (RCT). An example of Level II evidence is multi-site RCT (Fanaroff et al., 2019).

Level III

Evidence obtained from well-designed controlled trials without randomization. An example of level III evidence is quasi-experimental research.

Level IV

Evidence from well-designed case-control and cohort studies.

Level V

Evidence from systematic reviews of descriptive and qualitative studies.

Level VI

Evidence from a single descriptive or qualitative study.

Level VII

Evidence from the opinion of authorities and reports of expert committee Handbooks, encyclopedias, and textbooks often provide a good foundation or introduction and often include generalized information about a condition.

The best information to use in health studies are evidence from levels I to IV because of their quality and recommendations. However, evidence from level V to VII is unfiltered and not the best for use in research. Level I would be the best evidence to use for medically-based issues. The type of evidence used in a research proposal determines the quality of the results and applicability in real-life situations. Therefore, health providers should understand the importance of research and evidence in making informed healthcare decisions.

References

Fanaroff, A. C., Califf, R. M., Windecker, S., Smith, S. C., & Lopes, R. D. (2019). Levels of evidence supporting American College of Cardiology/American heart association and European Society of Cardiology guidelines, 2008-2018. Jama, 321(11), 1069-1080. doi: 10.1001/jama.2019.1122.

Glasofer, A., & Townsend, A. B. (2021). Determining the level of evidence: experimental research appraisal. Nursing2021, 51(1), 60-63. doi: 10.1097/01.NURSE.0000733964.06881.23.
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